It seems that fields are 'empty', but if you look harder you will see stems that are cut some 50 centimeters above the soil. As production levels diminish after many years of service, the stem and the roots of the Arabica coffee plant are still in good condition. After sprouting, the plants will reach a higher production than before.
The traditional method of replacing coffee is growing seedlings. The most easy way to grow seedlings is to put 20 seeds in each hole at the beginning of the raining season. Half of them is eliminated automatically. A more effective method is to raise seedlings in nurseries that are then planted outside after the first six to twelve months. The last method is practised in Blawan.

Coffee seeds and germination process

For propagation of Arabica coffee, ripe red cherries are collected, pulped, and the mucilage (slime of the beans) is removed by fermentation. The freshly picked coffee seeds (typically referred to as beans) can either be planted immediately or dried for later use. Dried coffee seeds can be used up to a year or more if properly stored.
Coffee seeds are pre-germinated by spreading on a sand bed and covered with moist burlap bag sacks or straw. The seeds are watched closely and removed as soon as radicals emerge. An alternative method of germinating coffee beans is to mix the seeds with moist vermiculite or expanded polystyrene and keep in the polythene bag. Once pre-germinated, the coffee seedlings are planted in nursery beds containing soil consisting of well rotted cattle manure and phosphate fertilizer. The nursery beds are 50% of the time shaded for the first couple of months. Then, shading is reduced slowly and completely removed the last two months before planting coffee seedlings into the fields.
Coffee seedlings are planted in the coffee fields when they reach a height between 20 and 40 cm.

New techniques at Blawan to improve coffee quality

In cooperation with the coffee plantation in Jember, a grafting program was started. The plantation was experiencing problems with nematodes. They found a solution in grafting, because the stem of Robusta is stronger than those of Arabica plants, while coffee from the Arabica plant is more tasteful. Thus, for the stem the coffee plant Robusta is used, while Arabica is put on top. Nowadays all coffee plants in Blawan are Arabica coffee, as about three-quarters of the coffee cultivated worldwide is C. arabica.